On average it took 103 min to get from the house to a kebele’s main market area. The dissimilarity between these identified local livelihood strategies and the strategies endorsed and supported by policies is notable (Arce 2003) because evidence on the food security benefits of livelihood shifts to cash crop production has been varied and conflicting. Improving strategies and assets by strengthening institutions and influencing policy (livelihood promotion). © 2021 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. The organization will align its activities around food security to SDG 1:to eradicate extreme poverty for all people everywhere, reduce at least by half the proportion of men, women and children of all ages living in poverty, and participate in the implementation big 4 agenda on food security as prioritized by the Government. R Development Core Team. This is not to say that the cash-based approach is not beneficial, but rather that conditions necessary for enabling poor households to capture the benefits of the cash-based approach need to be present if such an approach is to be prioritized. For example, they were more involved in learning with other farmers through informal exchange of information and knowledge. & Melesse, A. M. (2014) Surface water and groundwater resources of Ethiopia: Potentials and challenges of water resources development. Ellis (2000) discussed the importance of livelihoods diversification in a context characterized by precarious conditions and a need for survival. Transforming gender and food security in the global south. This visualization shows that households undertaking livelihood strategies with a higher number of food crops (lower right hand corner) were more food secure than those with a lower number of food crops (upper left hand corner). Clustering of households according to livelihood strategies corresponded well with the PCA ordination plot suggesting robustness of groupings (Fig. Environmental Conservation, 43(3), 263–272. IDB-WP-567. Common livelihood problems such as lack of farmland, livestock and labor were typically addressed through sharecropping arrangements. The Global Livelihoods and Food Security (LFS) strategy aims to improve NRC’s ability to reach and provide sufficient, appropriate and holistic food and livelihood assistance to people affected by displacement. Food security and food sustainability: Reformulating the debate. PubMed  The economics of poverty traps and persistent poverty: An asset-based approach. Maxwell, D., Coates, J., & Vaitla, B. The strategies involving three food crops were associated with having larger fields. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(31), 12302–12308. Lin, B. Manlosa, A.O., Hanspach, J., Schultner, J. et al. Cash crops in developing countries: The issues, the facts, the policies. Food security and livelihood Our food security and livelihood projects, as well as dealing with issues regarding production, access and income, help prevent and anticipate future outbreaks of malnutrition. Food Policy, 46, 1–12. Martin, S., Lorenzen, K., & Bunnefeld, N. (2013). Some households used informal credit channels such as borrowing coffee or cash from neighbors, friends or kin to address shortfalls. Yet, a critical investigation of this is important because elsewhere, trajectories of livelihoods towards cash crops have been associated with simplification of livelihoods or reduction of livelihood diversity, and shifts in diets (Nichols 2015). The survey tool was translated into the local language Aafan Oromo and back-translated to English to ensure that the integrity of the original meaning was maintained. In summary, livelihood strategies with coffee were associated with having access to coffee plots. With combinations of diverse food and cash crops, households in southwest Ethiopia were able to take advantage of what Ellis (2000) termed “complementarities between crops”. Through a combination and transformation of these assets, households are able to pursue different strategies that can, in principle, improve their … We prioritise the most vulnerable in the rural, urban and camp-based contexts that NRC operates in. Sustainability, 6, 1191–1202. Food Security 2015). These assets are both tangible (e.g., land, labour, credit, and livestock) and intangible (e.g., skills, knowledge, social networks). Kidanewold, B. Investigating the factors that underlie Ethiopian sharecropping arrangements including input contribution, risk distribution, and benefit distribution may be an important step for understanding and exploring contextually suitable options for strengthening and embedding equity in these arrangements. We thank Feyera Senbeta for facilitating our research and helpful discussions. Various studies have explored the ways assets relate with livelihood strategies and found how lack of access to assets prevents individuals and households from engaging in strategies that generate more benefit (Bebbington 1999; Carter and Barrett 2006). PubMed Google Scholar. The paradigm of agricultural efficiency and its implication on food security in Africa: What does meta-analysis reveal? We conjecture that for households in southwest Ethiopia, the feature of diverse crops in the livelihood strategies may be motivated not so much by economic profitability and capital asset accumulation but by the basic need to ensure households’ direct access to food. The nearness of households with the same livelihood strategy in the PCA plot indicates consistency of groupings between cluster analysis and PCA. 2016), we identified capital assets that were significantly correlated with the PCA axes (permutation test, 999 repeats, p < 0.01). Agricultural Economics, 28(1), 39–50. In a study in Malawi, Radchenko and Corral (2018) found varied effects of agricultural commercialization on nutritional outcomes for households in different tiers of the population – benefitting some and harming others. Moreover, Fig. Geographical Journal, 178(4), 313–326. The seminal work by Chambers and colleagues (Chambers 1987; Chambers and Ghildyal 1985; Chambers and Conway 1992) emphasized placing people at the center of scientific inquiry into poverty, food security, and environmental degradation and gave rise to livelihoods thinking. O’Brien, K., & Leichenko, R. (2000). Agricultural Economics, 22(2), 199–215. Fafchamps, M. (1992). The scores enabled us to derive a total HFIAS score ranging from 0 to 15 for each household, with smaller values indicating high food security and higher values indicating low food security. (2018). R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. In small or large bundles of twigs with leaves, nutrition security is attained by individuals when the body are. A European Research Council under the EU ’ s programmes public partnerships in providing FSL... Does meta-analysis reveal, educational attainment of the strategies involving three food crops defined. 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