Agriculturalists have long recognized that suitable rotations—such as planting spring crops for livestock in place of grains for human consumption—make it possible to restore or to maintain a productive soil. It is generally advisable to apply barnyard manure to those crops in the rotation that have a long growing season or a high monetary value, or to those that are considered gross feeders, such as corn. [8] When multiple cropping is implemented on small farms, these systems can maximize benefits of crop rotation on available land resources. The four staple crops above mentioned may be arranged into several rotations with manure and fertilizers applied. The renovating crops are crimson clover or soybeans or winter rye mixed with winter vetch. When a forage crop breaks down, binding products are formed that act like an adhesive on the soil, which makes particles stick together, and form aggregates. Cover crops are, therefore, considered conservation crops because they protect otherwise fallow land from becoming overrun with weeds.[21]. [25] This significantly improves the resilience of soils when subjected to periods of erosion and stress. (5) It provides for the economic destruction of weeds. It is desirable that crops be arranged in such a way that the improving acts of each crop shall be regularly received and the ill effects of the exhaustive crops are systematically neutralized by the crop that follows. This rotation not only economizes in labor as above suggested but makes a good distribution of labor. The wheat straw makes good bedding, while the wheat may either sold exchanged for concentrates. In conjunction with this, one should select crops that will yield well and for which there is a demand, either for feeding on the farm or as a cash crop. It is a good plan to follow a crop with a long growing season by one having a short growing season. In addition, plants produce root exudates and other chemicals which manipulate their soil environment as well as their weed environment. If crop rotation is done properly then two or three crops can be … These troubles can be largely avoided and the crop-producing power of the soil maintained by intelligent systems of rotation. In the above regions, farmers find no financial interest in fencing their farms, constructing farm buildings, feeding cattle and milking cows when they can make much more money by a system of farming that occupies their time for a little more than one-half the year. Calling for crop rotation in which the interval between successive potato crops is sufficiently long to provide for the disappearance of the disease. [8] Plants within the same taxonomic family tend to have similar pests and pathogens. One section was planted in the autumn with rye or winter wheat, followed by spring oats or barley; the second section grew crops such as peas, lentils, or beans; and the third field was left fallow. Jan 18,2021 - What is CROP Rotation | EduRev Class 8 Question is disucussed on EduRev Study Group by 166 Class 8 Students. Crop rotation: The growing of different crops on a piece of land in a pre¬planned succession is known as crop rotation. In addition, the sod and compost from cover crops and green manure slows the growth of what weeds are still able to make it through the soil, giving the crops further competitive advantage. [8] The following is a simplified classification based on crop quality and purpose. This improves the physical condition of the surface soil. Its presence in the soil prevents the continuous growing of potatoes. This consists of excreta given off by the roots of plants that accumulate in the soil to their detriment. The length of crop rotations will be determined by local conditions and the character of crops grown, together with the value of land and cost of labor. In order that farming may compete with other enterprises for labour, it must be likewise employed on the farm. [8], Many challenges exist within the practices associated with crop rotation. In a similar manner flax wilt or cotton, wilt demands a rotation of crops to prevent the disease from becoming disastrous. When manure is supplemented with fertilizers, the fertilizers are best adapted to crops of the short growing season or to those influenced in quality by the character or form of a particular fertilizer ingredient. [9] Biodiversity is also a requirement of organic certification, however, there are no rules in place to regulate or reinforce this standard. Examples of this practice might entail: a broccoli - winter wheat - sweet corn rotation; a wheat - fallow - alfalfa - potato rotation; a grass … Crop rotation is also used to control pests and diseases that can become established in the soil over time. [8] The consequences of faulty rotation may take years to become apparent even to experienced soil scientists and can take just as long to correct. In areas that are highly susceptible to erosion, farm management practices such as zero and reduced tillage can be supplemented with specific crop rotation methods to reduce raindrop impact, sediment detachment, sediment transport, surface runoff, and soil loss.[23]. Paragraph on “Crop Rotation” complete paragraph for Class 9, Class 10, Class 11 and Class 12 Crop Rotation Different types of plants take in different types of … Successful farming calls not only for the best possible utilization of the soil. Cambridge Dictionary +Plus OECD Test Guideline 502 (Metabolism in Rotational Crops) (1) describes model studies which determine the potential for uptake of residues from the soil following treatment with a radiolabelled active ingredient and the magnitude and nature of the residues in representative three crop groups. Such a practice is permissible only on very fertile soil or where the quality of the following crops is to be influenced through a reduction in organic matter or available plant food. This is practiced in such a way to give large yields and provide pasture and forage on the farm at the least expense of labor and soil fertility. In this case into four beds or areas. Less reliance is placed on purchased inputs and over time crops can maintain production goals with fewer inputs. Highly diverse rotations spanning long periods of time have shown to be even more effective in increasing SOC, while soil disturbances (e.g. It reduces reliance on one set of nutrients, pest and weed pressure, and the probability of developing resistant pest and weeds. [32][33], While crop rotation requires a great deal of planning, crop choice must respond to a number of fixed conditions (soil type, topography, climate, and irrigation) in addition to conditions that may change dramatically from year to the next (weather, market, labor supply). Growing the same crop in the same place for many years in a row, known as monocropping, gradually depletes the soil of certain nutrients and selects for a highly competitive pest and weed community. [9] Decisions about rotations are made years prior, seasons prior, or even at the last minute when an opportunity to increase profits or soil quality presents itself.[8]. Specifically, improved nutrition; pest, pathogen, and weed stress reduction; and improved soil structure have been found in some cases to be correlated to beneficial rotation effects. This improves soil health and provides crop benefits over the length of the rotation. The rotation is definite when the crops recur in a fixed order, and it is in the fixed rotation. For example, mustard is a common weed in the small grain crops in the prairie states. If you are a student of class 9 who is using NCERT … [7] Row crops typically have low biomass and shallow roots: this means the plant contributes low residue to the surrounding soil and has limited effects on structure. As a result in the process of harvesting are freely shattered and seed the land for the succeeding year. Efficient fallow management is an essential part of reducing erosion in a crop rotation system. The soil will be subject to erosion only during the time it is in corn. The three fields were rotated in this manner so that every three years, a field would rest and be fallow. But this will be largely overcome by the stubble and roots of the grasses. Crop protection is the general method or the practice of protecting the crop yields from different agents including pests, weeds, plant diseases, and other organisms that cause damage to the agricultural crops. One strong point in this rotation is that one plowing answers for three crops. By rotating crops between sites the pests tend to decline in the period when their host plants are absent which helps reduce build-up of damaging populations of spores, eggs and pests. Every seventh year they would not till, prune or even control insects.[3]. It is a principle that there should be as many fields as there are years. On farms having no permanent pasture, the clover and timothy may be left for another year. These will be determined largely by local conditions. In China both the two-field and three-field system had been used since ancient times. Similarly, on the best wheat lands in Minnesota, the Dakota and Canada, growing wheat continuously has proven a profitable enterprise. (8) Saves labor in the cultivation of land. Many similar examples could be cited, and success in preventing insect depredation by crop rotation calls for a knowledge of life history. By slowing the growth and proliferation of weeds while cover crops are cultivated, farmers greatly reduce the presence of weeds for future crops, including shallow rooted and row crops, which are less resistant to weeds. a) understanding of how crops develop and grow Under a two-field rotation, half the land was planted in a year, while the other half lay fallow. In this connection, it is wise to provide in the crop rotation a place where manure may be hauled directly from stables and barnyards and applied to the fields. Cereal and grasses are frequent cover crops because of the many advantages they supply to soil quality and structure. For example, although corn is affected by corn rootworms, soybeans are not. Unfavorable conditions in any locality are seldom such as to cause a failure of all kinds of crops, although a complete failure of a particular crop in a certain locality is not uncommon. All crops, when harvested, remove from the land more or less plant food, and in this sense they are exhaustive. Soil organic matter is a mix of decaying material from biomass with active microorganisms. Crop rotation is the practice of growing a series of different types of crops in the same area across a sequence of growing seasons. Crop rotation definition, the system of varying successive crops in a definite order on the same ground, especially to avoid depleting the soil and to control weeds, diseases, and pests. Definition? With more SOM, water infiltration and retention improves, providing increased drought tolerance and decreased erosion. The cultivation given the corn provides a good seed-bed for wheat with no other preparation than thorough disking and harrowing of the corn stubble. Improper implementation of a crop rotation plan may lead to imbalances in the soil nutrient composition or a buildup of pathogens affecting a critical crop. (2) Supplies organic matter and nitrogen. The crops to be grown in a rotation will be determined by a number of factors, as soil adaptation, length of the growing season, market demands, transportation facilities, and the system of farming that prevails. A well-planned rotation of crops enables the farmer to know definitely what is to be done each year and makes a possible estimation of the general expenses and returns that may be expected. The plot is at the far end from the lime and manure acidifies the soil so … lacking a definite plan. [26] The formation of soil aggregates is important for erosion control, as they are better able to resist raindrop impact, and water erosion. In addition to their negative impact on crop quality and yield, weeds can slow down the harvesting process. The exact sequence of crops will vary depending on local circumstances, with the critical design element being an understanding what each crop contributes and takes from the soil. The cultivation was given to inter-tilted crops, such as corn, potatoes, bets and the rock crops. Agronomists describe the benefits to yield in rotated crops as "The Rotation Effect". In this case, areas may be either unused or used as green leys for livestock. Thus the small fields will be easily accessible. Crop rotation is the practice of growing a series of different types of crops in the same area across a sequence of growing seasons. Definition of Crop Rotation Crop rotation is a system of moving crops. Aside from insect pest, plant diseases and weeds which flourish under the one-crop system to the disadvantage of the crop, there is another factor inimical to best plant growth. In regions where climate conditions are less predictable, and unexpected periods of rain and drought may occur, a more flexible approach for soil cover by crop rotation is necessary. Such trouble may be avoided by destroying the existing vegetation some time in advance of planting the corn. Furthermore, it provides for rather a continuous occupation of the soil. Thus making an ideal seed-bed for corn. The former will include the staple crops grown both for feed and market. 7. By regularly changing crops and keeping the soil occupied by cover crops instead of lying fallow, pest cycles can be broken or limited, especially cycles that benefit from overwintering in residue. ", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Crop_rotation&oldid=1000565368, Articles lacking in-text citations from April 2009, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2012, CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of January 2021, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the New International Encyclopedia, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 15 January 2021, at 17:30. The four-field crop rotation became a key development in the British Agricultural Revolution. Protection against soil loss is maximized with rotation methods that leave the greatest mass of crop stubble (plant residue left after harvest) on top of the soil. C. Who do not have sufficient land for farming. The old adage, “Don’t place all your eggs in one basket,” applies with equal force in the production of crops. This practice allows the spread of pests and diseases. Wheat generally proves a better crop in which to seed clover and the grasses than oats. Aside from these facts, there is another consideration that must not be overlooked. cash crop versus cover crop). In this system, the beans provide nitrogen; the corn provides support for the beans and a "screen" against squash vine borer; the vining squash provides a weed suppressive canopy and a discouragement for corn-hungry raccoons. Soil aggregates also reduce wind erosion, because they are larger particles, and are more resistant to abrasion through tillage practices. The cash crops are corn and either potatoes or tomatoes. Two of these are cash crops and two are renovating crops. Good crop rotation is a systematic succession of the three general classes of farm crops, namely, cultivated crops, grain crops, and grass crops. Different crops in the rotation can reduce the risks of adverse weather for the individual farmer. However efficient the rotation of crops may be in the extermination of insects, some rotations may prove not only ineffective but actually disastrous. Introducing livestock makes the most efficient use of critical sod and cover crops; livestock (through manure) are able to distribute the nutrients in these crops throughout the soil rather than removing nutrients from the farm through the sale of hay. An opportunity cropping system promotes adequate soil cover under these erratic climate conditions. Obviously a crop rotation may be good or bad in its … [12] For example, a nitrogen-fixing crop, like a legume, should always precede a nitrogen depleting one; similarly, a low residue crop (i.e. definitions in Annex I. Which occupies the land for a rather long period. The best varieties of the crops entering into the rotation should always be used. The potato scab, so far as is known, is confined solely to potatoes. [9] Some studies point to increased nutrient availability from crop rotation under organic systems compared to conventional practices as organic practices are less likely to inhibit of beneficial microbes in soil organic matter. Crop rotation systems may be enriched by the influences of other practices such as the addition of livestock and manure,[13] intercropping or multiple cropping, and is common in organic cropping systems. Many weeds grow best in certain kinds of crops. [8], Crop rotation is a required practice, in the United States, for farm seeking organic certification. The overall nutrition of the farmer during the time it is unwise to plan crops in. Like a mixture of grasses and cereals this weed becomes a serious in... Additional labor in the distribution of work from year to year pest so every! And potato fields ( family Poaceae ) and other chemicals which manipulate their soil environment well! 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